Although China's food self-sufficiency is predicted to be acceptable in the next 50 years, agricultural sustainable development in China will still be challenged by water resource shortage, cultivated land decline, environmental pollution, and faults in the mechanisms for protection of cultivated land and inefficiencies in the management of land tenure rights.
Integration of research and education is central to the creation of SAUs in India. The challenges faced by the agricultural research system in incorporating the sustainability perspective will also be applicable to agricultural universities in general. In addition, SAUs face the additional challenge of incorporating the sustainability perspective into their education programs. These programs have evolved around the prevailing green revolution paradigm of high-yielding varieties, input-intensive management and relative certainty in defining the production systems. The typical organization of any SAU points to their basis being in this paradigm: they are organized into disciplinary divisions and focus on the major economic crops in the area of their operation